- Top 10 Largest Grapes Producing Countries In The World
- 10. South Africa
- 9. Chile
- 8. Iran
- 7. Argentina
- 6. Turkey
- 5. China
- 4. Spain
- 3. United States
- 2. France
- 1. Italy
- Growing Grapes: The Complete Guide to Planting and Caring Grapes Successfully
- How to Pick Your Grape Variety
- Common types of American grapes are:
- However, European grapes are what is most commonly grown in the United States. Varieties of European grapes are:
- Where and How to Plant Your Grapes
- Care Tips for Your Grape Vines
- Common Diseases that Grapes Deal With (and the Treatment)
- 1. Downy Mildew
- 2. Powdery Mildew
- 3. Grey Mold
- 4. Anthracnose
- 5. Black Rot
- 6. Crown Gall
- Growing Grapes Tips and Tricks
- 1. Fresh Grape Sherbet Recipe
- 2. Concord Grape Spread
- 3. Goat Cheese Grape Balls
- 4. Grape Pecan Chicken Salad
- 5. Rainbow Fruit Salad
- All About Growing Grapes – Organic Gardening
- Types of Grapes to Try
- When to Plant Grapes
- How to Plant Grapes
- Trellising and Pruning Grapes
- Harvesting and Storage of Grapes
- Propagating Grapes
- Pest and Disease Prevention Tips
- Grapes in the Kitchen
- Growing Grapes and Pruning – A How to Guide with Images and Instructions
- Growing grapes in Italy is amajor part of the agricultural industry
- Growing Grapes and Diseases
- Follow Us and Keep Up to Date
- Which land is best for growing grapes
- Black vapor
- Mulch grows in rows
- Below other entries on the topic “Dacha and garden – with their own hands”
Top 10 Largest Grapes Producing Countries In The World
The grape production industry, commonly referred to as viticulture, has always been considered to be an ever-evolving sector of the market considering the enormously growing wine production industry which depends heavily on it. However, the horrifying shift in the global warmth patterns has somewhat had an adverse effect on the grape growing regions.
The models analysing this change have suggested a reduction in the precipitation level in sub-tropical regions and an increase in rains in the northerly latitude regions. Therefore, there have been several changes in the grape producing regions in the past few years. Analysing the changes, this is a list of the largest grapes producing countries in the world in 2019.
10. South Africa
In South Africa, the viticulture industry is witnessing a systematic change with enormous experimentations being carried out in the wine industry.
Grape production usually takes place in South Africa in an area with a mild Mediterranean climate which is suitable for growing a wide range of noble vine varieties.
According to a report of 2017, South Africa’s annual grape production in metric tons was recorded at 1,587,913.
Chile is considered to be the largest grower and exporter of fresh deciduous fruits in the Southern Hemisphere with over 230,000 hectares planted in orchards, including table grapes.
Grape production occupies 36% of this area making the country one of the largest grape producers in the world. Chile is known for growing two varieties of grape, namely Vinifera Grapes and Table Grapes.
As of 2017, the total annual grape production in Chile is estimated to be 2,122,775 (in metric tons).
Even though a full alcohol ban is imposed in the country of Iran, the wine industry continues to endure. Iran is ranked high on the lists of the largest production regions of fruits pomegranate, dates, cherries, grapes, etc.
The major high yielding grape production in Iran takes place in the Malayer region of the Hamadan Province. The Iranian grape production industry stats show that the total share of non-renewable energy used totals up to an estimated 61%.
Standing one spot above Chile in the grape production rankings, Iran’s annual grape production, in terms of metric tons, was recorded at an estimated 2,298,413 as of April 2017.
Argentina is the fifth largest producer of wines in the world. Argentina has been in the wine production industry for a significant period of time, first emerging with its unique variety of high yielding pink skin grapes, Cereza and Criolla Chica.
The Pedro Gimenez grape is considered to be the country’s widest grown wide grape variety as its crops take up approximately 36,000 hectares of the land. The grape is used for producing full-bodied wines and is one of the major supplies for the country’s wine production industry.
As of 2017, the Argentine grape production industry is believed to produce an estimated 2,519,678 (metric tons) annually.
Turkey is believed to have an extensive variety indigenous grape varieties (600 to 1200) which only 60 are commercially grown. Approximately, 3.6 million tons of grapes are produced in an area spreading up to 480,000 hectares.
The major grape production of the country takes place in the Aegean and the Mediterranean regions (61%). As of 2017, the country recorded an annual grape production level of 3,763,544 in terms of metric tons, leaving Argentina far behind.
China has been a major producer of grape for the past 2000 years and has even been declared the leading grape-producing country in the world in the past.
The Xianghuan village is evident of the developing agriculture sector of the country as it has adopted modern technological methods to make itself a national high-quality grape production base.
In 2016, the grape production levels recorded from this base showed comprehensive results with the exact reading being 2,600 tons. As of 2017, the grape production sector of China has recorded annual grape production level of an estimated value of 5,212,322 (in metric tons).
With over 2.9 million acres of land planted, Spain is the most popularly known wine producing nation in the world. Spain bears an extensive variety of grapes (almost 600) which only 20 varieties are used for the production of wine. Airen is the country’s most planted variety and is common throughout Central Spain.
This grape variety is used in the production of full-bodied wines bearing a high level of alcohol.
With recent developments in the grape production industry of the country which includes blending international varieties and adopting modern technologies, the annual grape production level was recorded at an estimated 5,676,985 in 2017.
3. United States
The grape production industry has a significant standing in the American Economy as nearly one million hectares of land is utilised by grape bearing crops (table grapes, etc.), that is, nearly 25,000 farms are growing grape crops.
Grape is considered to be highest value fruit crop in the US and is valued at a hefty value of $5 billion. The high grape production level is directly proportional to the country’s high wine sales totalling an amount of nearly $35 billion.
The annual grape production of USA was recorded at a high value 6,206,228 (in metric tons) which makes up 10% of the world’s grape production.
France is one of the largest wine producers in the world with a high production level of nearly 35 hectoliters per annum. Known for the extensive grape varieties, France has been a significant part of the grape and wine production industry for a long period of time.
The commonly found French grape varieties include Merlot (taking up 116,715 hectares of land), and Grenache (97,171 hectares of land). However, with the drastic climate change, France expected the worst grape harvest season in 2017 since 1945 with an estimated fall by 18%.
Despite the poor season, the annual grape production level of the country was recorded at 6,740,009 (metric tons) as of 2017.
Italy is the largest grapes producing country in the world by a considerably monumental margin. With its wine industry at its peak, Marche and Abruzzo are the regions which are popularly known for the production of White Verdicchio and Red Montepulciano grapes, respectively.
The Sangiovese grape variety which is used in the production of full-bodied red wine is the most planted grape variety in Italy taking up nearly 72,000 hectares of land. Other majorly common grape varieties grown in the country include Trebbiano, Catarratto, Merlot, Chardonnay, Barbera, etc.
Topping this list by a fair margin, the annual grape production level of Italy was recorded at 8,307,514 (metric tons) as of 2017.
The grape production industry, complementary to the wine production industry, has a significant role to play in the mechanism of the world economy. The countries mentioned in the above list have been ranked according to their annual grape production levels and their significance in the global grape production as of 2019.
Growing Grapes: The Complete Guide to Planting and Caring Grapes Successfully
Did you know that the oldest grape vine in America is over 400 years old? Or that grapes can help prevent heart attacks, help cure asthma, migraines, indigestion, fatigue, and kidney disease? (source)
Doesn’t it makes you want to eat more grapes?
Well, if you want to eat more of them, then you should certainly learn how to grow them. Which is what I’d to help you with.
So this post is going to share with you how to pick your grape variety, how to plant them, growing challenges you could face, tips for helping your grapes grow stronger, and also recipes to help you utilize them once you’ve managed to grow them.
That’s a lot of material to cover so let’s get started:
- Hardiness Zones: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
- Soil: Loamy, sandy, clay, PH between 6.0 to 7.0, fertile, well-drained
- Sun Exposure: Full sun
- Planting: In early or mid spring after all danger of frost has passed
- Spacing: 6 to 10 feet between plants and rows
- Depth: Plant the vines at the same level as in the nursery
- Best Companions: Chive, clover, mustard, peas, blackberry, oregano, geranium
- Worst Companions: Potato, radish, garlic
- Watering: Water regularly, at least once in 10 days during hot weather
- Fertilizing: Place 1/4 to 1/2 cup of 16-16-8 fertilizer 2 to 3 inches deep and 10 to 12 inches from the plant when planting and again in March of the second year
- Common Problems: Anthracnose, Armillaria root rot, botrytis bunch rot, eutypa dieback, esca, leaf blight, leaf spot, powdery mildew, black rot, crown gall, pierce’s disease, young vine decline, black vine weevil, grape cane girdler, grape mealybug, Japanese beetle
- Harvest: 1 to 3 years after planting, harvest when the grapes are rich in color, juicy, full-flavored, easily crushed but not shriveled, and plump
How to Pick Your Grape Variety
There are three main varieties of grapes that are most common for people to grow. The first option is the American grapes. They are known for their ability to withstand the colder temperatures.
Common types of American grapes are:
The second option is the European variety which prefers warmer temperatures and are actually better for making wine than for eating. S
However, European grapes are what is most commonly grown in the United States. Varieties of European grapes are:
- Black Beauty
- Black Corinth
- Flame Seedless
- Red Globes
- Red Malaga
Finally, the third most picked variety is the North American Muscadines. These are usually found in the south as they prefer warmer temperatures.
You should consider which types of grapes you enjoy the most as to which variety you’ll want to plant. I personally have muscadines, concords, and white seedless grapes growing in my backyard.
You should also consider what purpose you have the grapes when deciding on the variety as well.
The American grapes are usually what are used for eating while the European grapes are most commonly used for wine making.
So you’ll want to keep that tidbit in mind when choosing your grape variety.
Where and How to Plant Your Grapes
You will want to plant your grapes in the early spring when your grape vines are still dormant. You should ask if your variety of grape plant is self-fertile when you purchase it. Most are, but be sure to ask so you’ll know whether you have to pollinate your grape vine or not.
Be sure to build a trellis or plant your grapes near a fence so they’ll have somewhere to run. You will have to train the vine while it is young so it’ll know where to grow.
Once you have purchased your grape vine and figured out the trellis situation, you’ll want to soak the roots in water for 2-3 hours before you plant it.
However, be sure to plant the grapes in full sun in well drained, deep soil. If you don’t have a location with full sun, then plant your grape vines in an area where they will at least get morning sun.
Then you’ll need to be sure to plant them in a 12×12 hole. If you plant an American or European variety, then they need around 6-10 feet between each vine.
Yet, if you are planting muscadines then you’ll need to give around 16 feet between each vine. Be sure to examine the roots of the vine before planting. If you see dead roots, trim those off before planting.
After placing the vine in the ground, be sure to cover half of the hole with loose top soil and then stamp it down.
Then place the remainder of the loose soil in the hole and water heavily. That is all there is to planting your new grape vine(s).
Care Tips for Your Grape Vines
Photo by iFood.tv
Caring for your grape vines isn’t particularly difficult either. You will need to learn a few basic skills and follow a few simple steps, and your grapes should take off in no time.
So you will want to begin by not fertilizing the first year of planting. You don’t want to allow the plant to bear fruit for the first couple of years in order for the vine’s roots to become well established.
You will need to be sure to prune your grape vine yearly and don’t be afraid to remove up to 90% of the plant’s foliage during the first couple of years.
After the first few years, feel free to fertilize the vines as needed and be sure to prune the vine. The well established branches can stay while the newer, weaker branches of the vine will need to be cut back.
That is all of the basic care that a grape vine will need. They are rather self-sufficient which is a great thing for the gardener because it is less you have to do.
Common Diseases that Grapes Deal With (and the Treatment)
There are certain diseases that can threaten your grape vines. Here is what they are what you can do about them:
1. Downy Mildew
You may notice downy mildew on your grape vines. You will see the first signs of infection on the foliage of your vine. It will appear as yellow spots on the leaves.
You can treat downy mildew with fungicides and choosing varieties that are capable of withstanding this disease.
Since downy mildew attacks most American varieties, you should keep that in mind when choosing your variety of grape vines.
2. Powdery Mildew
Photo by phys.org
Powdery mildew literally looks powder all over the foliage of the grape vine. It is a fungus as well so moisture obviously plays a huge role in this disease.
3. Grey Mold
Grey mold usually impacts ripe fruit. They will become grey, watery, and rather mushy looking. Then they will develop a film of fungus on them.
You will know that your grapes have this disease if you see dark brown spots on the leaves of the grape vines.
5. Black Rot
Black rot is another fungal disease. It forms when you have a wet grow season. You will begin to notice black spots on the leaves of the vine. Then the fruit will turn black as well.
6. Crown Gall
Crown gall comes from the soil. You will know that you have it if your grape vine begins developing round growths on it. This disease develops within your grape vine during injury to the plant while pruning or injury from freezing.
Growing Grapes Tips and Tricks
Caring for your grape vines seems to be pretty straight forward. You need to practice proper pruning and make sure to fertilize after the first two years.
It is also recommended to place natural burlap around your vine to protect from harsh cold snaps.
However, I had an old farmer tell me recently to place a rusted nail in the ground next to my grape vines. He told me that grapes love iron and that when it rained the iron from the rusted nail would go into the ground and nourish the roots of the grape vines.
I am trying this myself this year because it made sense to me, but I will try to post an update in the comments below when I see my results.
1. Fresh Grape Sherbet Recipe
I am a huge fan of sherbet, but I’m also a huge fan of clean eating. So when I came across this recipe for fresh grape sherbet it definitely peeked my interest.
So if you are in the market for a tasty way to use your grape vines, then give this recipe a quick glance. Fresh sherbet is a great way to experience your homegrown grapes in a different way. Plus, it is also a way to add a little nutrition to an ice cream treat.
Make this delicious treat.
2. Concord Grape Spread
One of my favorite treats is homemade bread with fresh, homemade grape spread. It is a fresh, sweet, and filling treat. Plus, it is extremely delicious, too.
So if you homemade bread and jam then you’ll definitely want to check out this delicious recipe. It is one that could also be shared as a gift as well. A lot of people love homemade and delicious gifts.
Make this delicious treat.
3. Goat Cheese Grape Balls
I d this recipe because I thought it was a delicious and different quick snack or appetizer that could be thrown together in a crunch.
Plus, I not only raise grapes, but I raise goats as well. So this is one more way to utilize my homemade goat cheese and grapes. If you need something a little different to snack on then you might want to give this recipe a try.
Make this delicious treat.
4. Grape Pecan Chicken Salad
We love chicken salad around our house. For me, the more ingredients added to it, the happier I can be. I think chicken salad on a warm and buttery croissant is an ultimate lunch idea.
So this chicken salad certainly peeked my interest. It has lots of grapes and pecans included which makes a delicious addition to any salad or sandwich. The next time you make chicken salad, keep this recipe in mind.
Make this delicious treat.
5. Rainbow Fruit Salad
My kids are extremely picky eaters. They don’t care for most anything healthy which is kind of ironic considering we raise most of our food.
But fruit salad is the game changer in my house. When I add lots of sweet fruit together, they can’t help but leave the bread alone and try something freshly grown. If you have picky eaters, maybe this will help you too.
Make this delicious treat.
Well, there are my tips for growing grapes. I hope that this helps you figure out which type of grape you’d to grow, how to grow them successfully, and also some delicious recipes to help you use your homegrown grapes.
But I’d love to know your grape growing secrets. How do you successfully raise grapes? Do you have any favorite grape recipes? Would you consider sharing them with our community?
All About Growing Grapes – Organic Gardening
(For details on growing many other vegetables and fruits, visit our Crop at a Glance collection page.)
Long-lived grapes can be grown in most climates, provided you choose appropriate varieties for your region.
Cold-hardy varieties bred in Minnesota can survive temperatures to minus 30 degrees Fahrenheit, while disease-resistant muscadine grapes excel in warm climates with limited winter chilling.
Growing grapes organically is easier in the arid West than it is in the humid East, where disease prevention is a higher priority.
Types of Grapes to Try
Learn more about various grape varieties and their best uses in our Grapes at a Glance chart.
Seedless table grapes produce juicy, thin-skinned berries great for eating fresh, drying as raisins or making into juice.
Labrusca grapes have wild North American grapes in their pedigree, which gives them a bold flavor ideal for juice and jelly. Labrusca grapes have good tolerance of cold winter temperatures.
Muscadine grapes are best grown in warm, humid climates and produce sweet berries with a robust, musky flavor excellent for fresh eating, juice, jelly or wine.
White wine grapes — which were created by crossing European and North American grapes — can be grown organically in hospitable sites. White wine grapes mature earlier than darker ones, so they are the best choice where summers are short. Some varieties, such as ‘Traminette,’ need only 110 days from bloom to harvest.
Red wine grapes take between 105 and 140 days after blossoming to ripen, so choose early-maturing varieties in cold climates. Red wine grapes can produce yields in excess of 30 pounds per plant.
When to Plant Grapes
In spring, set out purchased plants four to six weeks before your last frost, when the plants are emerging from dormancy. Grape varieties grown in containers can be planted up until early summer.
How to Plant Grapes
Growing grapes in full sun helps develop sweet, full-flavored fruits. Plants can produce fruit for decades if grown in deep, fertile soil that drains well.
Before planting, dig out all perennial weeds and amend the soil with at least 2 inches of mature compost or other high-quality organic matter.
If your soil tends to be acidic, use light applications of lime or wood ashes to raise the pH levels to between 5.6 and 6.2.
Most grapes should be planted 7 to 9 feet apart, with a durable trellis installed at planting time. After planting grapes, water them thoroughly and mulch the area beneath the plants with 2 to 4 inches of wood chips or another organic mulch.
Trellising and Pruning Grapes
Matching your trellis design and pruning practices to the natural growth habit of your chosen grapes will go a long way toward preventing disease and maximizing productivity.
In general, ‘Concord’ grapes and other labrusca varieties produce downward-facing branches from long canes that form a cascade of foliage, so they do best on a high trellis or an arbor. Similarly, muscadine grapes are easiest to manage on an overhead rectangular trellis, sometimes called an “X trellis.
” With these vigorous fruits, pruning should be geared toward preserving two to four 6-foot canes while trimming out excess growth.
Most table and wine grapes produce upward-facing shoots, so a two-tiered trellis that supports the branches as they gain height is best.
Trellises of tightly woven wire are preferable because they do a good job of supporting the vines when they become heavy with fruit. Pruning of table and wine grapes should be aggressive — remove all old growth except for selected fruiting spurs.
If you’re growing table grapes on an arbor, you can prune a little less if you want to get a thick cover of foliage.
Prune grapes in late winter, before the buds begin to swell. The first year after planting, concentrate on helping your young plants grow straight, sturdy trunks.
The training of side branches will begin in the second year, with buds ready to bear fruit three years after planting.
Each grape variety you grow will respond differently to various pruning practices, so be prepared to fine-tune your methods.
Harvesting and Storage of Grapes
Grapes are ripe when they taste sweet. Early-maturing white or red varieties may be ready to pick a month before later-maturing blue or black grapes. Allow grapes to stay on the vine until the berries show a whitish bloom on their skins, but bring them in should a period of wet weather be in the forecast. Ripe grapes often crack after heavy rains.
Keep clusters of unwashed grapes in the refrigerator, stored in plastic bags to help retain humidity. Fresh or frozen grapes can be made into juice, jelly or wine. Seedless grapes are easiest to dry into raisins.
Grapes can be easily propagated by rooting 6-inch stem cuttings taken in late winter or early spring. When stuck 3 inches deep into an outdoor propagation bed or containers of moist potting soil, most of the cuttings will root within two months and be ready to set out the same growing season. Grapes should always be propagated from cuttings because they do not grow true from seed.
Pest and Disease Prevention Tips
All grape diseases can be prevented in part with attentive trellising, pruning and mulching. In all areas, powdery mildew (evidenced by whitish patches on leaves) can weaken plants and reduce grape flavor. Preventive sprays with a 1-part-milk to 5-parts-water solution can minimize this problem.
Rare in the West, the fungal disease known as “black rot” is a constant threat to Eastern grapes. Plants often need regular sprays with organic, copper-based fungicides, even if the variety is disease-tolerant. Microbial fungicides Bacillus subtilis (such as Serenade) can also offer significant protection.
In the Sun Belt, gardeners should choose varieties with resistance to Pierce’s Disease, common in warm-climate soils. Good choices include ‘Black Spanish,’ ‘Blanc du Bois’ and ‘Victoria Red.’
Grape leaves are among the favorite foods of Japanese beetles, and the fruits are a beloved snack of many wild birds. Early-season handpicking of beetles is essential to good control, and tulle netting can help protect plants from hungry birds.
Read more: Learn more about the grape varieties that work best for making homemade jellies, juice and wine with our Grapes at a Glance chart.
Grapes in the Kitchen
Seedless table grapes are perfect for snacking, can be added to salads or chutneys, or can be dried for raisins. All types of grapes give up their juice when barely heated to a simmer before being crushed and drained.
Refrigerate grape juice for at least 24 hours to allow it to clear, then pour off the juice and discard the tartaric acid crystals at the bottom of the container. Grape juice can be canned, frozen, or made into jelly or wine.
Grapes provide fiber, potassium and a smattering of vitamins and minerals, but their real nutritional punch comes from phenols and antioxidants, which are most abundant in dark-colored grapes. The antioxidants in dark purple grape juice can improve brain functioning, and both juice and wine made from dark grapes are good for your heart.
Contributing editor Barbara Pleasant gardens in southwest Virginia, where she grows vegetables, herbs, fruits, flowers and a few lucky chickens. Contact Barbara by visiting her website or finding her on .
Growing Grapes and Pruning – A How to Guide with Images and Instructions
Growinggrapes for shade, eating or making wine? Needimages for pruning grapes? Learn how to grow grapes and the skill ofpruning grape vines for a successful harvest.
One of the surest of fruit crops is the grape, a crop each year beingreasonably certain after the third year from the time of setting thevines; and the good amateur kinds are numerous.
Whenlooking at growing grapes, thegrape does well on any soil that is under good cultivation and welldrained.
A soil with considerable clay is better under thesecircumstances than a light, sandy loam. The exposure should be to thesun; and the place should allow cultivation on all sides.
Whengrowing grapes and thinking of planting, 1- or 2-year-oldvines should be used, being set eitherin the fall or early spring. At planting, the vine is cut back to 3 or4 eyes, and the roots are well shortened in. The planting hole in which theplant is to be set should be large enough to allow a full spreading ofthe roots. If the season is dry, a mulch of coarse litter may be spreadaround the vine. If all the buds start, the strongest one or two may beallowed to grow. The grape canes arising from these buds should bestaked andallowed to grow through the season; or in large plantations thefirst-year canes may be allowed to lie on the ground.
Inthesecond year of growing grapes, one cane should be cut back to the samenumber of eyes asthe first year. After growth begins in the spring, two of the strongestbuds should be allowed to remain.
These two canes now arising may begrown to a single stake through the second summer, or they may bespread horizontally on a trellis. These are the canes that form thepermanent arms or parts of the vine.
From them start the upright shootswhich, in succeeding years of growing grapes, will bear the fruits.
Whenpruning grapes choose4 strong canes for next season's crop.
Cutoff all other canes.
Ofthe 4 canes remaining now choose 2 that are the strongest and cut offthe other 2.
Nowtie the 2 canes to the trellis wire. You may need to tie them down.
Inorder to understand the pruning of grapes, one must fully grasp thisprinciple: Fruit is borne on wood of the present season,which comes from wood of the previous season.
Toillustrate: A growing shoot, or cane, of 2010 makesbuds. In 2011 ashoot arises from each bud; and near the base of these shoots thegrapes are borne (1 to 4 clusters on each).
Whileevery bud on the 2010shoot may produce shoots or canes in 2011, only the strongest of thesenew canes will bear fruit.
The skilled grape-grower can tell by thelooks of his cane (as he prunes it in winter) which buds will give riseto the grape-producing wood the following season.
The larger andstronger buds usually give best results; but if the cane itself is verybig and stout, or if it is very weak and slender, he does not expectgood results from any of its buds. A hard, well-ripened cane thediameter of a man's little finger is the ideal size.
Anotherprinciple when growing grapes and pruning that needs to be mastered isthis:A vine should bearonly a limitednumber of clusters, – say from 30 to 80.
A shoot bears clusters nearits base; beyond these clusters the shoot grows on into a long, leafycane. An average of two clusters may be reckoned to a shoot.
If thevine is strong enough to bear 60 clusters, 30 good buds must be left atthe pruning (which is done from December to late February in thenorthern hemisphere).
Theessential operation of pruning grape vines,therefore, is eachyear tocut back a limited number of good canes to a few buds, and to cut offentirely all the remaining canes or wood of the previous season'sgrowth.
Ifa cane is cut back to 2 or 3 buds, the stub- part whichremains is called a spur. Present systems, however, cut each cane backto 8 or 10 buds (on strong varieties), and 3 or 4 canes are left, – allradiating from near the head or trunk of the vine.
Youwill notice whengrowing grapes that the top of the vinedoes not grow bigger from year to year, after it has once covered thetrellis, but is cut back to practically the same number of buds eachyear. Since these buds are on new wood, it is evident that they areeach year farther and farther removed from the head of thevine.
Inorder to obviate this difficulty, new canes are taken out each year ortwo from near the head of the vine, and the 2-year- or 3-year-old woodis cut away.
Growing grapes in Italy is amajor part of the agricultural industry
When growing grapes thetraining of grapes is a different matter. A dozen different systemsof grape training may be practiced on the same trellis and from thesame style of pruning, – for training is only the disposition orarrangementof the parts.
Onarbors, it is best to carry one permanent arm or trunk from each rootover the framework to the peak. Each year the canes are cut back toshort spurs (of 2 or 3 buds) along the sides of this trunk.
Whengrowing grapes they are set from 6 to 8 feet apart in rows which are 8to 10 feetapart. A trellis made of 2 or 3 wires is the best support. Slattrellises catchtoo much wind and' blow down. Avoid stimulating manures.
In very coldclimates, the grape vines may be taken off the trellis in early winterand laid on the ground and lightly covered with earth.
Along theboundariesof home lots, where grapes are often planted, little is to be expectedin the way of fruit because the ground is not well tilled.
Growing Grapes and Diseases
Unfortunately growing grapes means also fighting against disease. Thegrape is subject to many insects and diseases, some of which are verydestructive. The black-rot is the most usual trouble.
Toproduce bunches of high quality and free from rot and frost injury, grapesare sometimes bagged. When the grapes are about halfgrown,the bunch is covered with a grocer's manila bag. The bags remain untilthe fruit isripe.
The grapes usually mature earlier in the bags. The top of the bagis split, and the flaps are secured over the branch with a pin.
Now that you know how to grow grapes,learn howto make wine and use our homemadewine recipes.
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Which land is best for growing grapes
What should be the soil to ensure the best growth of the vine? To answer this question, you need to consider several options.
For many years it was believed that a well-groomed vineyard is a site on which the soil is kept under black steam and there is not a single blade of grass on it. With such a system of maintenance, it undergoes a deep digging with the turnover of the reservoir every year.
However, the soil structure is destroyed, it becomes dispersed. Grape bushes do not develop well on it. A lot of water and fertilizers are required to produce an acceptable crop. Long-term practice has shown that this is not the best way to keep the soil in the vineyard.
In order to preserve the fertility of the soil, it is necessary to refrain from digging it with the turnover of the formation, and to make sparing treatment, for example, using a Fokine plane – loosen the top layer to a depth of 5-7.
See also: Grapes (photo) description of varieties, cultivation planting and care for the vineyard – from A to Z
The use of a sod system of soil content in a vineyard is also fraught with many negative consequences. Perennial herbs are a strong competitor to grape bushes, as they absorb from the soil a huge amount of moisture and minerals. In addition, they serve as a refuge for many pests.
In recent years, scientists are actively working on the issues of the maintenance of inter-rows and trunks in planting grapes.
Because of the biological characteristics of this crop, especially its thermophilic nature, the traditional methods of maintaining the soil in the aisles of the garden are not entirely suitable for vineyards in the northern latitudes.
The thing is that in such regions the main part of the root system of the grapes is located in the upper layer
soil. Therefore, plants that are cultivated on cold northern soils, to normalize root nutrition and optimize metabolism, it is necessary to apply agrotechnical measures, which at the very beginning of the season can increase the soil temperature.
Of all the agrotechnical measures that contribute to the high productivity of the vine and the maintenance of fertility, the optimal is the mulching of the stump strips. This is the most laborious, but definitely the best way to keep the soil in the vineyard.
With this method, the surface of the soil is covered with mulch.
In this capacity, inorganic materials can be used – black film, spunbond, rubber and the , but it is much more effective and better to use organic mulch – hay, straw, mown grass, sawdust, pine or coniferous litter, leaves, bark and many
it's different. Moreover, this issue is relevant for country wine growing, where the use of chemicals is very limited.
Mulching is a simple and convenient way of covering roots from withering in the summer and freezing in winter.
A thick layer of mulch (at least 10 cm) protects the soil from freezing, reliably preserving both microbes and mushroom mycelium.
Before the onset of stable frosts, the root system of plants under the layer of mulch continues to function until the soil freezes, and therefore the grape plants have time to prepare for the period of rest and wintering.
Mulch on the vineyard performs another important role – it hinders the development of weed vegetation.
Mulching effectively inhibits the growth of wild plants and contributes to better preservation of heat in the autumn in the upper fertile layer.
Organic mulch serves as a natural shelter for beneficial inhabitants of the soil (microorganisms, worms), on which direct sunlight and soil desiccation are pernicious.
For grapes, additional fertilizing, mineral fertilizers and loosening are not required (earthworms and other soil dwellers cope with them). Of all the methods, only regular moderate watering is needed, since useful soil microorganisms do not tolerate drying the soil and for their active productive activity one needs a lot of organic matter and a lot of moisture.
An important element in this system of soil content in the vine garden is the timing of mulching. In principle, you can mulch the planting of grapes at any time, but only after heating the top layer of the soil. Otherwise, the mulch will slow the heating of the soil and, accordingly, the beginning of the growing season of the grape plant.
Under natural conditions, the main supply of organic matter to the soil occurs in the middle of autumn, so the autumn mulching of the stump strips corresponds more to the biological needs of the plants. Autumn mulching is used to protect the soil from weathering, leaching and freezing, which is the key to good plant development for the next year.
Reference by topic: Grapes in summer – top dressing, green wreckage, inoculations
Mulch grows in rows
Mulching the whole area of the vineyard is quite difficult, for this reason, it is possible to use in addition, on a small vineyard, the interrowding of the rows, which are periodically weakened. All organic material (mowed grass, weeds) is used as mulch and is a fertilizer.
One of the requirements for sowing grass is that they should not oppress grape plants, slow down their development and reduce the productivity of plantings.
On the contrary, the invasion must inhibit the growth of weeds, form a favorable environment for the development and fruiting of grapes.
Mulched grape rows need a width of 1,5 m, and row-spacing is sown with various grass mixtures. When the row sprouts, all mowed grass goes to mulch rows.
Experience shows that at the onset of spring mulch should be removed from the stubble strips to the middle of the rows, as it will slow down the warming of the soil. After some time, the mulching material is returned to the place.
© Alexander Vladimirovich GORNY, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
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