Summer cottage all year round – we change the dacha into a cottage for permanent residence

Private house from a summer residence for a constant residing – a re-design

Summer cottage all year round - we change the dacha into a cottage for permanent residence

Owner wanted to make it suitable for permanent residence. The architect solved the problem and thus not only gave the new housing an individuality, but also increased its area.

The previous design was a frame from a bar, standing on a ribbon foundation. Gable roof – with a metal roof. It was necessary to warm the house, while increasing the useful area, and give it a new look.

The architect found an unexpected solution – on the existing foundation it was possible to put a full frame, insulated with mineral wool, close to the walls of the frame (Fig. 1).

And this skeleton was made above the main frame: a gable roof was lifted, having constructed new rafters and having laid a thicker layer of a heater.

The new roof was also made of sheet iron. For the decoration of the facades, a modern material was used – the fiber-cement panels Equitone.

Thanks to the frame, which strengthened the entire structure of the house, it became possible to move windows to the corner walls.

Moreover, they were made much wider than before, which allowed not only to increase the illumination of the premises, but also to open the best views of the surrounding landscape.

And of course, the necessary engineering equipment for the winter home – heating system and water supply – has appeared. The house is now heated by convectors built into the floor in the window area.

Fibrocement slab is a composite construction material of a new generation. It is made from such components as cement, sand, water, cellulose and mineral fiber, which gives the material a unique strength. Panels of this brand are made in Germany and Belgium. The service life is more than 50 years.

Reference by topic: Growing house – technology of building “growing” premises

Changing the layout

The new design of the walls of the house allowed to significantly increase the useful area of ​​the premises. In fact, the attic was turned into a full-fledged second floor and added to it a large balcony along the walls.

On the first floor, a part of the bearing deaf partitions (Figure 2) were decided to be replaced by supporting columns made of pine timber. Combining the two rooms, they got a spacious living-dining room (Figure 3).

On the second floor, the internal partitions were built anew – the benefit of the enlarged area of ​​the second floor made it possible. Now the hall has become much more spacious, new rooms have appeared – one more guest bedroom and a guest bathroom.

Interior walls – plasterboard with finishing paint.

Terraces

As a result of the reconstruction, another idea was realized – multi-level terraces (Figure 4) around the house. On the lower wide concrete platform there are parking and a barbecue with a dining room. A little higher along the main facade stretches a wooden terrace, which is “consonant” to the balcony at the level of the second floor.

Behind the house now is a guest garden house with its own small terrace. Thanks to the pergola and gabions, the building blends perfectly into the surrounding landscape.

Interior

The customer asked the designer to create a “masculine” interior, minimal in character and finish, but functional. Part of it was to become and opening views from large windows.

The original color scheme of the interiors, largely dictated by the works of the artist Sergei Kiselev, whose painting became a decorative accent of the interior of the dining room and kitchen.

First floor

By combining the rooms on the ground floor, they created a common living and dining area. The partitions in the form of pillars made of beams were decided to be used in the interior as a way of zoning rooms.

The texture of the pine beam is left in natural color to bring warm colors to the ascetic and severe masculine situation of the house.

Black ceiling with the effect of the night sky, lighting around the perimeter of the room and decorative partitions from the bar make the living-dining room a bit mysterious, but very cozy. The fireplace is faced with natural slate.

Bathroom in contrast with the dining room-living room is made in light color scheme. Nothing superfluous does not distract from a kind from a window on a pine wood.

The window here is not only a source of light, but also an element of natural ventilation, so necessary in a humid room. The walls are covered with textured plaster.

A natural stone with a spot treatment in the form of a rough surface gives a pleasant tactile sensation.

Second floor

The second floor has been completely changed. Thanks to the new roof, the ceiling height at its highest point is almost 4 m. The hall from the extension of the staircase turned into a rather spacious and bright room.

There was an additional bathroom. Instead of one guest bedroom, there were two, one of which – with access to the balcony.

And the external staircase leading to this balcony, gives the opportunity to get to the top floor from the street.

Particular attention deserves partitions from the vertical bars. These load-bearing structures simultaneously became the original decorative element in the interior.

See also: Frame house house with their own hands: construction

Cottage> in a country house – photo

1.Bathroom on the first floor, in the decoration used natural materials – wood, plaster, stone. The worktop is extremely functional: under it are a washing machine and a storage cupboard.

2. View of the kitchen. The original detail of the interior is the decorative partitions from the bar.

3-4. Living room With fireplace & dining room. The black ceiling visually reduces a fairly large room.

Remodeling a holiday home in a private countryside project

© Olga Trushalova, architect Vadim Kondrashev, designer Olga Podolskaya.

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  • Источник: http://kak-svoimi-rukami.com/en/2016/03/chastnyj-dom-iz-dachi-dlya-postoyannogo-prozhivaniya-pereproektirovka/

    Peter I’s cottage to Gorbachev’s lavish dacha: Russian leaders’ residences in pictures

    Summer cottage all year round - we change the dacha into a cottage for permanent residence

    Built: 1710-1714

    Home to: Peter I

    Before all else in St. Petersburg, there was a log cabin along the Neva River. Peter I was no stranger to modest accommodation, and when he moved the cabin in 1712, this new summer “palace” boasted  just two floors.

    Catherine Palace, Tsarskoye Selo

    Built: 1717-1724, reconstructed 1752-1756

    Home to: Catherine I, Empress Elizabeth, Catherine II

    Now this is more it.

    The current standing palace in Pushkin (formerly Tsarskoye Selo, 30km south of St. Petersburg), was built under the rule of Empress Elizabeth, Peter’s daughter to his second wife Catherine.

    This 325-m long behemoth is home to some of the most extravagant examples of luxury ever showcased: a gold-lined ballroom, a 100m2 portrait hall, a Chinese silk-covered drawing room, an immense chapel, and gold-covered statues were just some of the palace’s features.

    Catherine II (the Great) replaced Empress Elizabeth’s penchant for Rococo flamboyance with a neoclassicist and Greek Revival style.

    Winter Palace, St. Petersburg

    Built: 1757-1762

    Home to: Officially, all subsequent Russian tsars.

    The current palace stems from a design by Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli, who began rebuilding it with approval from then-Empress Elizabeth. The green and white Rococo flair, the ionic columns, and the parapets were so adored that when much of the palace was destroyed in an 1837 fire, Nicholas II ordered an exact reconstruction of its exterior.

    Tsaritsyno Palace, Moscow

    Built: 1786-1796

    Home to: Catherine II

    The first palace on the estate, completed for Catherine after nine years of  construction, was torn down in 1785 because she deemed the rooms too dark. The new manor was abandoned by Paul I and only completed in 2007.

    Catherine the Great’s Moscow residence is now an idyllic park in the city’s southern suburbs.

    Alexander Palace, Tsarskoye Selo

    Built: 1792-1796

    Home to: Alexander I, Nicholas I, Alexander III, Nicholas II

    Located in Tsarskoye Selo alongside Catherine Palace, the mansion served as a summer house for the Romanovs throughout the 19th century (and indeed, as a permanent residence for Nicholas II and his family).

    St. Michael’s Castle, St. Petersburg

    Built: 1797-1801

    Home to: Paul I

    St. Michael’s Castle is Russia’s most ill-fated leaders’ residence. Catherine II’s son spent 15 years before his accession to the throne planning this spectacular estate. When the castle was finally completed in 1801, Tsar Paul lived there for just 40 days before being assassinated in a palace coup.

    Livadia Palace, Crimea

    Built: 1861 (rebuilt 1909-1911)

    Home to: Alexander II, Alexander III, Nicholas II

    Nicholas II’s absurdly expensive Crimean dacha, which replaced his original palace, was a short-lived testament to the Romanov lavishness that didn’t help the family’s fate. Interestingly enough, it was also the meeting point for the Yalta Conference in February 1945.

    Kremlin Senate, Moscow

    Built: 1776-1787

    Home to: Vladimir Lenin

    Lenin’s infamous study and apartment was on the Senate Palace’s third floor, where he lived and worked throughout the Civil War. The Bolshevik leader’s quarters were preserved in the Kremlin as a personal memorial until 1994.

    Gorky Manor, Gorki Leninskiye (Moscow)

    Built: Early 19th century

    Home to: Vladimir Lenin

    This 19th century noble manor played host to the Bolshevik leader when he fell ill for the final time in May 1923. Having grown accustomed to the mansion’s lavish neoclassical interior, Lenin allegedly instructed his aides not to change any of the building’s previous furniture.

    Kuntsevo Dacha, Moscow

    Built: 1933-1934

    Home to: Joseph Stalin

    Opting to move away from noisy Moscow, the Soviet General Secretary commissioned the construction of an impressive seven-room personal residence to the city’s west in 1933.

    It was there that Stalin spent the last two decades of his life, famously hosting Mao Zedong and Winston Churchill in his study.

    In fact, Stalin is alleged to have rarely left this study, despite the residence being decked out with various gardens, orchards, and sporting facilities.

    32 Kosygina Street, Moscow

    Built: 1955

    Home to: Nikita Khrushchev

    Before becoming General Secretary, Khrushchev wasted little time following Stalin’s death in securing himself improved accommodation. The new mansion on Kosygina St. overlooked Lenin Hills (now Sparrow Hills), was decked out with marble and expensive wood, and was fenced off with steel gates.

    26 Kutuzovsky Prospekt, Moscow

    Built: Late 1950s

    Home to: Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov

    For efficiency’s sake, Brezhnev’s 54m2 flat was just a floor below the apartment of KGB chief and future General Secretary Andropov. The apartment caused a lot of noise in the Russian press in 2003, when it went on sale for a whopping $620,000 (twice its estimated market value).

    Zavidovo Dacha, Tver Region

    Built: Early 1960s

    Home to: Leonid Brezhnev

    Brezhnev’s favorite and most frequently visited dacha was located in the Zavidovo National Park, some 130 km northwest of Moscow. Built primarily for hunting, Brezhnev’s two-story cottage was rigged out with marble flooring, a private cinema, a billiards room, and 12 luxury bedrooms for friends and senior politicians.

    10 Granatny Lane, Moscow

    Built: 1978

    Home to: Leonid Brezhnev, Mikhail Gorbachev

    This spacious apartment block in Moscow’s fashionable Patriarch Ponds neighborhood served first as a downtown pad for Leonid Brezhnev, and then briefly for Gorbachev in 1984-5. If you look closely, the sixth floor is distinguishable by the fact that its windows are slightly longer than the others, meaning some extra headroom for the General Secretaries.

    10 Kosygina Street, Moscow

    Built: 1986

    Home to: Mikhail Gorbachev

    Not far from Khrushchev’s old stomping ground lies the four-story, fourteen-room former mansion of Mikhail Gorbachev. The building was later purchased by composer Igor Krutoy for an alleged $15 million.

    Zarya Dacha, Foros (Crimea)

    Built: 1986-1988

    Home to: Mikhail Gorbachev

    Despite his avid campaigning against Party privileges, the last Soviet leader had no hesitations installing a $20m, three-story holiday home for himself on the Black Sea coast. A 1992 inspection by Pravda newspaper revealed that the dacha contained a private beach, rooftop solarium, marble floors, cinema, dance floor, tennis courts, and a self-watering peach grove.

    Most notably, Gorbachev’s dacha was the location of his three-day house arrest during the failed coup d’état by KGB and hardline Communist Party members in August 1991.

    If using any of Russia Beyond's content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material.

    Источник: https://www.rbth.com/history/329294-russian-leader-homes-peter-great-gorbachev

    Russian Dacha as a Cultural Phenomenon

    Summer cottage all year round - we change the dacha into a cottage for permanent residence

    The word “dacha” comes from a verb – “dat'” – to give and the noun “dar” – gift.

    Since many years, receiving a plot of land for personal usage was a great and very much appreciated gift – whether it came from Tsar government or Soviet government.

    But the way people used that land did differ much in different times. One cannot fully understand Russia without understanding the cultural context behind Russian dacha.

    Dacha – Before the Revolution of 1917

    At the tea table, by K.Korovin, 1888

    First dachas in Russia appeared in the beginning of 18th century under Peter the Great. He wanted his subordinates to stay close to him even on vacations, so he granted them plots of land near St’Petersburg. These plots of land were strategically positioned on the way to Peterhof, Tsar’s residence, so he could always stop and see how his people are spending their free time.

    In 1803 the famous Russian historian Karamzin wrote that in Summer Moscow gets empty, since people go to dachas. And by the mid 19th century, dachas became a favorite place to rest and to have fun for all aristocrats, who could afford such a pastime.

    Dachas were often simple wooden houses, but always had a terrace, where the inhabitants could dine, drink tea and entertain in the long summer evenings. Not all people owned dachas, some did rent them for summer and usually traveled to dacha together with an entire family and servants.

    Read  Anton Chekhov if you want to learn more about dacha stories of that time!

    Dacha – Soviet time

    First sanatorium for agricultural workers in the World, Livadia, Crimea, 1931

    October Revolution of 1917 brought with it a law, which forbid private ownership of land in Russia “forever”.

    The idea behind it was that all citizens of the country will be able to use all the country resources, all people will be equal and none would be able to exploit other people or be more rich than they are. The new Soviet Republic values were mainly collectivistic.

    And instead of individually owned dachas, general population got access to group recreational facilities such as sanatoriums. A popular Soviet phrase was: “All around me belongs to the people, all around me belongs to me”.

    There was however another saying – “everybody is equal, but some are more equal than others”.

    Josef Stalin, who ruled the country from 1924 till 1953, was fond of a good countryside recreation himself.

    He  had many dachas in the most picturesque parts of Russia – from Moscow region to the Black Sea. These were huge mansions, fully staffed and ready to welcome him any time he decides to show up.

    Old dacha at the “writer’s village”

    Stalin figured that granting such privilege as summer dacha to his closest people in the government and to the VIP people from culture and science élite will be very motivating for them.

    These dachas did not belong to their inhabitants, furniture and lamps had itinerary numbers on them, but these dachas were a big luxury and getting one was considered to be a huge privilege.

    To simplify things – dachas were grouped by the occupation – that is how we still have “villages” of writers, composers, artists, scientists etc. At that time all dachas were a place to rest, fish, collect berries and mushrooms, play sports and entertain with friends.

    Growing produce at dacha

    After the WW II, limited food resources in the country forced government to allow people to get plots of land and support families by growing veggies there. However, building a house on that plot was strictly forbidden.

    In the 60s, during Nikita Khrushchev’s time at power – ordinary people were finally allowed to get dachas. But it was so not easy to get one.

    Distribution was merit-based, one needed to fully comply with the ideology  and wait in a long line, sometimes for many years.

    “Dacha village” was different from a regular village. Small plots of land, high density of houses

    These dachas were not as luxurious – it was usually just a tiny plot of land with a permission to build a small one-floor house there. Inhabitants still did not own it, but could use it for growing produce strictly for family consumption (not for sale).

    Still, people felt as if it was their own land, so getting a dacha became one the dreams of Soviet people, in the same line as getting an apartment or a car. There were many manipulations – how to get dacha quicker.

    In Russia law and rules were always particularistic, so if you knew somebody, you could get to the desired dacha much quicker.

    Building a house was not easy as well. There was a deficit of construction materials. It is difficult to imagine that now, but one could not just go to a store and buy wood or bricks or anything else, one needed to “get” the needed materials somehow through his network of contacts or pay triple at the black market.

    Preserves for winter

    This was the time when the function of dacha started to morph – it became a place of hard work in the field rather than a place to rest and entertain.

    That function of dacha came in very handy in the turbulent times of the 90s, when food was scarce in the stores and people really supported their families by growing potatoes, cucumbers, fresh produce, berries and apples at their land.

    A lot of home-grown produce was conserved for winter in either pickled or salted form or as home-made jams.

    Dacha, by V. Gubarev – a jocular way to portrait “soviet dacha” phenomena

     Dacha – Modern Time

    In the 90s was finally allowed to own property. That is another big and interesting story, but the outcome was that people started to buy dachas if they had money.

    Or, if they already had dachas, they could privatize them, officially making them the owned properties. Restrictions on the size of the land or number of floors in the house were also lifted.

    Finally, you could do whatever you want at your own land. Curious what happened next?

    Typical dacha of a rich person in the 90s – red brick house, which is hidden behind a high red brick fence

    People, who were always deprived of such array of choices started to experiment. Rich “New Russians” immediately started to build huge mansions at their small plots of land. A lot of these houses lacked taste or style.

    Generations of local people had not seen beautiful country houses and commercial industry in this area was not developed yet. Tradition of building wooden houses was replaced by building brick or stone ones.

    Dachas used to be just summer houses, but now many people started to build all year round houses.

    Now, finally, the industry works as well as in any other country and if you want to build a beautiful house of any style – it will be built for you. But it will be pricey. As with any commercial goods and services in Russia – from clothes to manicures, you pay premium for good stuff!

    Many typical dachas still have more land devoted to growing produce than to the rest area

    So, how do people spend time at dachas now? That does vary. A lot of people still work all day, growing potatoes, cucumbers, strawberries etc.

    The majority of these people have full-time jobs in the city, they are not agricultural workers, but every Friday evening they leave the city to have a weekend of really hard work in the field. Needless to say – they have to cope with huge traffic jams on the way to dacha and back.

    Sometimes getting to a dacha which is 50-100 km from the city can take 3-4 hours. It is not possible to give a rational explanation of why they still continue growing potatoes, although they can easily buy them in any store. Economically it does not make sense, but people are irrational.

    For some growing produce is a habit, some (mostly older people) enjoy to cultivate land with their own hands, some the idea of organic produce or say that potatoes, grown in your own garden just taste better.

    Another phenomena, which we, locals, call “Balcony, dacha, garbage can“. It is a story of frugality, caused by deficit of things in stores during Soviet times and scarcity of storage areas in urban apartments. Russians do not to throw things away,even if they do not need some things – they still keep them.

    This stuff first lands at the balcony, then moves to dacha and only if it is really old or completely broken, ends up in garbage. As a result of that, a lot of people wear old clothes at dacha. And the majority have stacks of old clothes at dachas even though there is no shortage of clothes in store any more.

    Still, many people do think of dacha as place to have fun. These people mow their lawns and plant flowers, so they still have to do their share of field work to make their dacha look presentable.

    But instead of spending all time in the garden, they invite friends and entertain them, grill meat, eat strawberries sitting in gazebos, play sports and enjoy other recreational activities.

    Hopefully this will become a mass trend and more people will enjoy resting at dacha rather than working there!

    Some pleasures at Dacha include:

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    I wish we return to Chekhov’s times and will see Russian Vogue publishing dacha’s couture section each summer.

    My ideal dacha is a place where people wear beautiful dresses, eat strawberries sitting in reclining chairs, while reading a book during the day and entertain friends in the evening! I want us to play charades or music, engage in sports, long walks at the picturesque areas, collect berries and mushrooms in the forest just for fun and enjoy all that! And I wish the problem of traffic to be solved somehow! That would be an “ideal dacha”!

    Источник: https://understandrussia.com/dacha/

    World Heritage Encyclopedia

    Summer cottage all year round - we change the dacha into a cottage for permanent residence
    “Second-home” redirects here. For other uses, see Second home.For other uses, see Cottage (disambiguation).

    A cottage is a small house. The word comes from the United Kingdom where it is used to mean a house that has one main storey, with a second, lower storey of bedrooms which fit under the roof upstairs.

    In many places the word cottage is used to mean a small old-fashioned house. In the United States the word cottage is often used to mean a small holiday home.In modern usage, a cottage is usually a modest, often cosy dwelling, typically in a rural or semi-rural location.

    However there are cottage-style dwellings in cities, and in places such as Canada the term exists with no connotations of size at all (cf. vicarage or hermitage).

    In the United Kingdom the term cottage also tends to denote rural dwellings of traditional build, although it can also be applied to dwellings of modern construction which are designed to resemble traditional ones (“mock cottages”).

    In certain countries (e.g.

    Scandinavia, Baltics, and Russia) the term “cottage” has local synonyms (in Finnish mökki; in Estonian suvila; in Swedish stuga; in Norwegian hytte [from the German word Hütte], in Russian дача (dacha) and can refer to a vacation/summer home, often located near a body of water. In the USA this type of summer home is more commonly called a “cabin”, “chalet”, or even “camp”.

    Origin of the term

    Originally in the Middle Ages, cottages housed agricultural workers and their friends and families. The term cottage denoted the dwelling of a cotter.

    Thus, cottages were smaller peasant units (larger peasant units being called messuages).

    In that early period, a documentary reference to a cottage would most often mean, not a small stand-alone dwelling as today, but a complete farmhouse and yard (albeit a small one).

    Thus, in the Middle Ages, the word cottage (MLat cotagium) denoted not just a dwelling, but included at least a dwelling (domus) and a barn (grangia), as well as, usually, a fenced yard or piece of land enclosed by a gate (portum).

    The word is probably a blend of Old English cot, cote “hut” and Old French cot “hut, cottage”, from Old Norse kot “hut” and related to Middle Low German kotten (cottage, hut) . Examples of this may be found in 15th century manor court rolls.

    The house of the cottage bore the Latin name: “domum dicti cotagii“, while the barn of the cottage was termed “grangia dicti cotagii“.

    Later on, “cottage” might also have denoted a smallholding comprising houses, outbuildings, and supporting farmland or woods. A cottage, in this sense, would typically include just a few acres of tilled land.

    Regional examples of this type included the Welsh Tŷ unnos or House in a night, built by squatters on a plot of land defined by the throw of an axe from each corner of the property.

    Much later (from around the 18th century onwards), the development of industry led to the development of weavers' cottages and miners' cottages.

    According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term cottage is used in North America to represent 'a summer residence (often on a large and sumptuous scale) at a watering-place or a health or pleasure resort' with its first recognised use dating to 1882, in reference to Bar Harbor in Maine.

    North America

    In North America, most buildings known as cottages are used for weekend or summer getaways by city dwellers. It is also common for the owners of cottages to rent their properties to tourists as a source of revenue.

    In Saint John, U.S. Virgin Islands, most buildings known as cottages or vacation rentals are used for weekend or summer getaways.

    In Michigan, when one refers to a cottage it normally means a summer residence farther north near or on a lake.

    “Cottages” in Eastern Canada are generally located next to lakes, rivers, or the ocean in forested areas. They are used as a place to spend holidays with friends and family; common activities including swimming, canoeing, waterskiing, fishing, hiking, and sailing. There are also many well-known summer colonies.

    Cottage living is one of the most popular tourist draws in Ontario, Canada, parts of which have come to be known as cottage country.

    This term typically refers to the north and south shores of Georgian Bay, Ontario; Muskoka, Ontario; Haliburton, Ontario; and the Kawartha Lakes, Ontario; but has also been used to describe several other Canadian regions.

    The practice of renting cottages has become widespread in these regions, especially with rising property taxes for waterfront property.

    What Eastern Canadians refer to as “cottages” (seasonal-use dwellings), are generally referred to as “cabins” in most of North America. This is most notable in the Midwest and Western United States, and Western Canada. In much of Northern Ontario, New England, and upstate New York, a summer house near a body of water is known as a camp.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, the A-Frame house became a popular cottage style in North America.

    Eastern Europe and Russia

    The first known “cottages” were built in Russia in the 19th century, when British culture was popular.

    Since the 1980s in former soviet countries the word “cottage” (Russian: коттедж, Ukrainian: котедж) is understood to mean the same as a 'nice house' in western countries, and is associated with the pleasant life of western middle-class people, and thus also the 'good life' in Russia and the CIS. The main reason why a house (Russian: дом [dom], Ukrainian: дім [dim]) is called a “cottage” is an association with new modern good quality living, and not with the degrading remains of Soviet living.

    Since the 1990s many “cottage complexes” (or “cottage villages”, “cottage towns”) have been built, either freestanding or around big cities. They include associated infrastructure and are built as whole projects. There are economy, business and premium (elite) “cottage complexes”.

    New “cottage” settlements are different from old dacha areas, traditional villages,[1] and “private sectors”, which are old settlements within a city and consist of 1+ storey houses with small land plots, existing from the soviet era.

    Scandinavia

    sauna.

    There are 474,277 cottages in Finland (2005), a country with 187,888 lakes and 179,584 islands, including rental holiday cottages owned by hospitality companies but excluding holiday villages and buildings on garden allotments.

    Reports have 4,172 new cottages built in 2005. Most cottages are situated in the municipalities of Kuusamo (6,196 cottages on January 1, 2006), Kuopio (5,194), Ekenäs (Tammisaari – 5,053), Mikkeli (4,649), and Mäntyharju (4,630).

    The formal Swedish term for cottages is fritidshus (vacation house) or stuga, of which there are 680.000 in Sweden (2007). According to Statistics Sweden, about 50% of the Swedish population has access to a vacation house.

    [2] In everyday talk, Swedes refer to their cottages as lantstället (the country house) or stugan (the cottage). Most vacation houses in Sweden are to be found along the coasts and around the major cities.

    Prices vary a lot depending on location; a modern seaside house near Stockholm may cost 100 times as much as a simple cottage in the inner regions of northern Sweden.

    Until the end of World War II, only a small wealthy Swedish elite could afford vacation houses – often both a large seaside house and a hunting cabin up north.

    During the rapid urbanisation in the 1950s and 1960s, many families were able to retain their old farmhouses, village cottages and fisherman cabins and convert them into vacation houses.

    In addition, economic growth made it possible even for low income-families to buy small lots in the countryside where they could erect simple houses. Former vacation houses near the large cities have gradually been converted into permanent homes as a result of urban sprawl.

    The traditional Swedish cottage is a simple panelled house made by wood and painted in red. They may contain 1−3 small bedrooms and also a small bathroom. In the combined kitchen and living room (storstuga) there is usually a fireplace.

    Today, many cottages have been extended with “outdoor rooms” (semi-heated external rooms with glass walls and a thin roof) and large wood terraces.

    As a result of the friggebod reform in 1979, many cottage owners have built additional guesthouses on their lots.

    The formal Norwegian term for cottages is hytte or fritidsbolig (vacation house).Otherwise it is much the Swedish cottage.

    United Kingdom and Ireland

    In England and Wales the legal definition of a cottage is a small house or habitation without land.[3] However, originally under an Elizabethan statute, the cottage had to be built with at least 4 acres (0.02 km2; 0.01 sq mi) of land.

    [3] Traditionally the owner of the cottage and small holding would be known as a cottager. In the Domesday Book they were referred to as Coterelli.[3] In Welsh a cottage is known as bwthyn and its inhabitant preswlydd. [4]

    Over the years various Acts of Parliament removed the right of the cottager to hold land. According to the Hammonds in their book The Village Labourer before the Enclosures Act the cottager was a farm labourer with land and after the Enclosures Act the cottager was a farm labourer without land.[5]

    In Scotland and parts of Northern England the equivalent to cottager would be the crofter and the term for the building and its land would be croft.[6]

    In popular modern culture the term cottage is used in a more general and romantic context and can date from any era but the term is usually applied to pre-modern dwellings.

    Older, pre-Victorian cottages tend to have restricted height, and often have construction timber exposed, sometimes intruding into the living space. Modern renovations of such dwellings often seek to re-expose timber purlins, rafters, posts etc.

    which have been covered, in an attempt to establish perceived historical authenticity.

    Older cottages are typically modest, often semi-detached or terraced, with only four basic rooms (“two up, two down”), although subsequent modifications can create more spacious accommodation.

    A labourer's or fisherman's one-roomed house, often attached to a larger property, is a particular type of cottage and is called a penty.

    The term cottage has also been used for a largish house that is practical rather than pretentious, see Chawton Cottage.

    Irish cottages (Irish: teachín) were historically the homes of farm workers and labourers, but in recent years the term has assumed a romantic connotation especially when referring to cottages with thatched roofs (Irish: teach ceann tuí).

    These thatched cottages were once to be seen all over Ireland, but most have become dilapidated due to newer and modern developments. However, there has been a recent revival of restoring these old cottages, with people wanting a more traditional home.

    Today, thatched cottages are now mostly built for the tourist industry and many can be rented out as accommodation.[7]

    Hong Kong

    Cottages are commonly found in the New Territories region of Hong Kong. City dwellers flock to these cottages during holidays and summer months to get away from the hustle and bustle of Hong Kong. Most are three storey brick structures with balconies on the upper floors. There is often an open roofed area for eating and entertaining. These dwellings have full rooms and kitchens.

    References

    Current editions

    • Sayer, Karen. Country cottages: a cultural history (Manchester University Press, 2000).
    • Woodforde, John. The Truth About Cottages: A History and an Illustrated Guide to 50 Types of English Cottage (I B Tauris & Co Ltd, 2007)

    copyright (free download)

    • Papworth, John B. Rural residences : a series of designs for cottages (London, R. Ackermann, 1818).
    • Downing, A. J. Cottage Residences ( New York : J. Wiley & son, 1873).
    • Dawber, E. G. & Davie, W. G. Old cottages and farmhouses in Kent and Sussex (London, B. T. Batsford, 1900)
    • Ditchfield, P. H. Picturesque English cottages and their doorway gardens (J.C. Winston Co., 1905).
    • Holme, Charles. The Studio”, London, New York, Paris, 1906).
    • Green, W. C. & Davie, W. G. Old cottages & farm-houses in Surrey (London, B. T. Batsford, 1908).
    • Ditchfield, P. H. & Quinton, A. R. The cottages and the village life of rural England (London, J.M. Dent & sons ltd., 1912).
    • Elder-Duncan, J. H. Country cottages and week-end homes (London, Cassell and co. ltd., 1912).
    • Holme, Charles (Ed). The Studio Ltd.”, London, New York, Paris, 1912).
    • Kirby, J. H. Modern cottages (self pub. n.d).

    Источник: http://www.worldheritage.org/articles/Summer_cottage

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