- Steppe cherry (photo) varieties and reviews about them. Landing and care
- CHERRY STEPPE – BIOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
- WHAT LOVES AND WHAT THE STEPPE CHERRY DOES NOT MAKE OUT – LANDING AND CARE
- FORMING CHERRY STEPPE
- BEST VARIETIES OF STEPPE CHERRY – DESCRIPTION AND MY REVIEWS
- Cherry Generous: a description of the variety, photos and reviews
- History of creation
- Reviews of gardeners
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Preparing for planting
- Care of a bush
- Pest Control
- Tree and shrub cherries
- Species and varieties
- The grafted material
- Own-rooted material
- Site preparation
- Planting cherries
- Planting dates
- Planting technique
- Pruning: tips gardeners
- Autumn work
- Diseases and pests
- Photo of different varieties of cherries
- Video about growing cherries
Steppe cherry (photo) varieties and reviews about them. Landing and care
Most gardeners believe that ordinary cherry is an independent stone fruit culture. However, it is not!
Ordinary cherries – a hybrid, which was obtained as a result of accidental pollination of cherries steppe and wild cherries about 20 centuries ago. That is why in nature there are no natural thickets of common cherry.
And if somewhere there are similar plantings, then these are abandoned, degenerated gardens of once cultural plantings. But the steppe cherry, which will be discussed today, is growing in nature.
CHERRY STEPPE – BIOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
In vivo, it spread widely throughout the Northern Hemisphere. It can be found on the territory of central European countries, in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, in the central part of China. Its natural plantings are also widely represented in the territory of our country: in Altai, the Southern Urals, in Southern and Western Siberia, in the Far East.
Steppe cherries in wild thickets are a low (up to 2 m) shrub. Her branches are long, very flexible, The leaves are small, dark green, shiny, elongated.
Steppe cherries have tremendous frost resistance (some species withstand frosts up to 48 °). In addition, it is very rarely affected by such terrible fungal diseases as coccomycosis and moniliosis. Therefore, in the northern regions of our country, this culture can become indispensable for replenishing the vitamin-berry deficiency experienced by the local population.
The technical characteristics of its fruits are somewhat depressing – smallish, sour, which means that they are not very tasty when fresh. But this applies to wild species.
Over the past 30 years, a number of different research institutions and experimental stations in different parts of our country have created more than two dozen varieties of steppe cherries, obtained from crosses with the best modern varieties of common cherry and its derivatives-dyukov.
See also: Cultivation of cherries in the Moscow region – planting, varieties and care
They are sold as varieties of steppe cherries and have very high taste and technical characteristics. On my site I tested many of them and today I want to talk about the best that I would recommend amateur gardeners to plant in their garden.
WHAT LOVES AND WHAT THE STEPPE CHERRY DOES NOT MAKE OUT – LANDING AND CARE
The agricultural technology of steppe cherries differs little from the cultivation of bush cherries. It is also demanding on lighting throughout the daylight hours.
Pay attention to the composition of the soil. If ordinary cherries can grow on slightly acidic, then steppe cherries need neutral or slightly alkaline.
She can not stand the close occurrence of groundwater (the plant is a steppe, and there the soil is dry).
The land should be fertile and consist of the upper fertile layer, rotted manure, sand and sheet land in equal quantities.
Landing pits are dug at a distance of 2-2,5 m from each other, with a diameter and depth of 50 cm. Drainage with a layer of 10 cm must be laid on the bottom of each pit. Calcium crushed stone, which can now be ordered in almost any region, is best suited for this. In each pit add 2 tbsp.
tablespoons of double superphosphate, 1,5 tbsp. tablespoons of potassium sulfate, 1 cup of dolomite flour or crushed chalk (the second is preferable) and 1/3 of a bucket of wood ash. When planting, I pour another liter jar of egg shell flour into each pit, which I collect in the winter.
All stone fruit crops, especially those that have begun bearing fruit, must be given calcium 2 times during the summer to form seeds in the fruits. If it is not enough, then the fruits will not be tied and fall. Calcium can be given in the form of an egg shell, ground into flour, or a solution of calcium chloride (4 tbsp. In 1 bucket of water under one plant).
And one more thing: on acidic soils, every autumn, dolomite flour or chalk (2 kg per 6 square meters) must be added to neutralize the acid in the soil.
Under steppe cherries they are brought in three times during the summer. The first time is in the spring, right after the snow melts. For this, a urea solution is best suited (2 tbsp.spoons per 1 bucket of water under one plant).
The second time the plants are fed slurry (in a ratio of 1:10) during the flowering period.
For the third time, steppe cherries are fertilized in the fall with any ready-made mineral complex for autumn feeding of fruit trees in accordance with the recommendations indicated on the package.
Steppe Cherry is a fairly drought-tolerant plant, so you need to water it according to the weather. The main thing is that the earth in the root layer is always wet. Do not overdo it! Excessive watering can lead to the death of plants.
FORMING CHERRY STEPPE
Most modern varieties of steppe cherries practically do not form basal shoots, so you do not have to fight it. Care of the bushes is limited to sanitary pruning and removal of old and thickening branches.
You do not need to give any form to the bushes. This is a fruit plant, and the more berries it brings to you, the better!
I recommend that all gardeners plant at least 3 steppe cherry bushes. This is especially true for those whose plots are in the risky farming area..
With good care, steppe cherries will annually produce high yields of delicious, sweet berries, un ordinary cherries!
And one more tip: buy planting material only in large, trusted companies, preferably after presenting a quality certificate. And at the market by the road, most ly, they will offer you wild steppe cherries, which will only work for jam (and even that is not very tasty).
BEST VARIETIES OF STEPPE CHERRY – DESCRIPTION AND MY REVIEWS
This is one of my favorite steppe cherries. It is not too early – it matures by the end of August.
The berries are quite large (weighing up to 5 g), dark cherry, sweet, very juicy, with a characteristic cherry flavor. The variety is completely self-fertile, therefore, its yield is good, and it pollinates other varieties perfectly. Generous – a fairly sprawling bush with a height slightly above 2 m. Bears fruit on the growth of the current year. It blooms in May.
The flowers are white, collected in small inflorescences. Fruiting begins in the 3rd year. The bush is very durable, in one place can grow more than 30 years. Requires thinning and removal of basal shoots. The variety has increased frost resistance and resistance to mushroom stunning jams and preserves.
Bushes practically do not form basal shoots, therefore it is easy to care for them. Maksimovskaya has increased frost resistance (up to minus 30 °) and high resistance to fungal diseases. The variety is self-fertile and very productive. Fruits every year. Stable crops begin to bring in the third year.
Steppe Cherry Gnome (prunus cerasus gnomik)
Cherry Generous: a description of the variety, photos and reviews
Today, in the country plots, in our gardenscompatriots grows many varieties of fruit trees. One of the most favorite species is cherry. A large number of varieties have been bred. A great popularity Cherry Generous.
This is a shrub plant. It has a lot of advantages. Due to its unpretentiousness, durability, and also high yield, the presented variety is now grown by many gardeners. Features of caring for a fruit plant should be considered in detail before planting.
History of creation
Cherry Generous (pictured below) wasis deduced by selection. It is a hybrid of common and steppe cherries. By selecting the seedlings, and also with free (random) pollination of the Ideal variety, the introduced variety appeared. In the process of pollination, other species also participated. Among them was the steppe cherry.
The saplings of the cherry ideal were sent to the selection organization. They were annual plants. The variety of Cherry Shchedra was recognized by breeders who worked in the Sverdlovsk Horticultural Station.
Distribution of variety in orchards and countrysites of our compatriots occurred back in 1959. The zoning took place in such areas as the Volga region, the West Siberian and the Urals region. This variety is well established. Today it can be found even in the gardens of the near abroad.
Cherry Generous (description of the variety, photo will be presented below), as already mentioned,is a plant shrub. It grows to 2 m in height. The shape of the bush is wide-rounded. His shoots are raised. Density and lentinity of the plant is average.
The cone-shaped kidney reaches a size of 4 mm. She slightly deviates from escape. The leaves are obovate elongated. They have a shiny surface and a dark green color.
Inflorescences consist of 3-4 flowers. Their petals are white. They are freely spaced from each other. Fructifies the presented cherry on an annual gain, as well as bouquet branches. Due to the fact that the shrub is low, harvesting is quick and easy.
Cherry Shchedra, reviews which provides experienced summer residents andgardeners, gives juicy, intense red fruits. Their mass reaches 4 g. The shape of the cherries is rounded. Their width is about 18 mm, and the height is 17 mm. The flesh of the fruit has a dark red color. It is characterized by medium density, as well as red juice.
Berries grow on long peduncles (up to 37 mm). Inside the cherries there is a bone with a mass of 0.27 g. It occupies 7.7% of the total weight of the fetus. The stone can be easily separated from the pulp. The appearance of berries is very attractive. According to the surveyed gardeners, this indicator is at the level of 4.6 points (on a five-point system).
The flesh has a sweet and sour taste. According to the tasting evaluation, berries received 4.4 points. When the cherry is detached from the stem, juice does not appear. Berries do not crack in rainy weather. They determine the high content of vitamins C and P. They make compotes, juices, close jam or eat fresh.
Reviews of gardeners
Cherry variety Shchedraya, reviews which is provided in various sources of summer residents, characterized by flowering in the medium term. This process begins in the last decade of May. Fruits mature late and not at the same time.
Fruiting, according to reviews of gardeners,comes in 3 or 4 years of growth. The yield is high. Fruit the bushes every year. With proper care, a cherry can live up to 30 years. The variety is self-fertilized, but the presence of other varieties on the cherry site is welcome.
Cherry well survives the winter, is not afraid of frost. Flowers are resistant to sudden spring frosts. Also for a long time the bush can do without watering. The variety is also considered resistant to pests. Rarely is affected by cherry aphids and a sawmill. Has an average resistance to moniliasis and coccomicosis.
The presented variety can be grown both as an industrial and as an amateur culture. This is a valuable breeding resource. It is suitable for intensive cultivation.
Advantages and disadvantages
Cherry Generous, description varieties of which provide summer residents, has a massadvantages. However, there are some drawbacks. There are several approaches to harvest. Fruits ripen unevenly. This is the main drawback, which does not frighten the gardeners. There are much more positive qualities in the variety.
This variety is famous for its extraordinary yield. From one adult bush it is possible to collect up to 15 kg of cherries. This explains the suitability of the variety for the industrial cultivation of fruits.
Some gardeners claim that the fruit ripens until September. Therefore, generous refers to late varieties.
To increase the yield, you can plant next to this bush trees such as Subbotinskaya, Polea, Maksimovskaya and other varieties of cherries.
Experienced gardeners argue that Generous is capable ofto withstand to -45 ° C frost. In this case, there is no damage to the bark, shoots. It is because of this feature that the recommended variety is recommended to be planted in the northern regions.
Preparing for planting
Description of cherry variety Generous allows us to draw conclusions about the expediency of its landing on its site. If the horticulturist decided to grow the presented bush, he should consider the features of this process.
The best time to plant is spring. However, the soil should be prepared in the fall. The future place for planting is necessary to dig up, procure. A month later, organic fertilizers are introduced into the soil.
For this, slurry is suitable. It is bred in water in a 1: 2 ratio. It is also necessary to make mineral fertilizers. This will require 50 g of potassium sulfate and 100 g of superphosphates.
This calculation is carried out on 1 m² of the plot area.
In autumn, a landing pit is also prepared. Its depth should be 50 cm, and the width – 70 cm.
Land for planting should be dry. The best presented variety grows on sandy loamy soils. Cherry loves light, so for the landing choose a sunny place, preferably on a hill. On the north side it is necessary to protect the bush from strong winds.
Cherry variety Generous is considered undemanding to the ground. However, in order to increase the yield, it is necessary to properly fertilize the soil immediately before planting. The process is produced in the spring. At the bottom of the prepared pit it is necessary to lay out a special soil.
For this, the upper layer of the earth is mixed withmanure. 30 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium chloride are also added here. You can also add 1 kg of wood ash. The mixture is poured into the pit. On the formed mound a seedling is established. It needs to be densely buried.
The root neck should remain on the surface. Generous does not tolerate a buried landing. Around the cherry a hole is built with high sides. In it water is introduced. After carefully ramming the land in it, you need to pour about 4 buckets of water. The landing site is mulched with organic fertilizers or peat.
Care of a bush
Cherry generous, description of the variety which has been discussed in detail above, requires proper care after planting. In the first two years, the bush only requires watering, weed removal and loosening of the soil.
In the autumn, the bush should be prepared for winter. For this, the earth around it is dug to a depth of 10 cm. It must be done carefully, so as not to damage the roots.
When cherries reach the age of 3 years, in springshould make the first portion of fertilizer. This is done immediately after the thawing of the snow. In this case, nitrogen fertilizing is suitable. In the fall, sulfuric acid potassium and superphosphate can be introduced into the soil.
During fruiting, the amount of fertilizershould be increased. After flowering, you should make an additional portion of feeding. Organic fertilizers should be applied once every two years. Liming is also required once every five years.
A young plant needs frequent watering. As the drying of the soil should be poured 3-4 liters of water in the hole under the bush. When the bush begins to bear fruit, the frequency of irrigation is reduced. A year will require similar procedures in total 3.
The first watering is carried out after flowering, the second – during the ripening period. In October, it will be necessary to perform the third watering. If the weather is arid, this procedure is performed more often.
In this case, you should pour about 5 buckets of water into the ground.
Cherry Generous requires proper pruning. In this case, its life expectancy reaches more than 3 decades. Pruning is performed annually. Crown bush is fully formed in 5 years. It should have about 10 or more major strong branches. Therefore, after the formation of the tree, pruning is performed only with a supporting purpose.
When the kidneys on the branches begin to swell,it is clear which shoots should be removed. This procedure is best done in early spring. All patients, dry or weak branches need to be removed. The slices of the sections are treated with a thick-colored garden sauce. Annual shoots are not pruned. The procedure must be carried out before the appearance of leaves.
The root shoots should also be removed. She takes a lot of strength from the plant. Also, the density should be prevented from increasing. All branches that grow inside the bush should also be removed. This reduces the risk of diseases, contributes to increased yield.
Cherry Generous resistant to pests. However, in some cases it may be affected by coccomicosis or moniliosis, cherry aphid or mucous sawmill. Most often it happens in a cold, damp period.
Affected leaves, berries and shoots need to be removed andburn. After and before flowering, the bush should be treated with a solution of aqueous copper chloride. After the harvest is collected, you can spray 1% Bordeaux solution. In this case, the soil under the bush should also be treated.
It is also recommended periodically to loosen the soil near the cherry, to treat the plant with insecticides. Timely prevention and treatment can avoid the spread of diseases.
Having considered the features that possesses Cherry Generous, each gardener will be able to plant and grow the presented variety on his plot.
Tree and shrub cherries
In the photo: cherry in the fruiting period.
The first sweet cherry variety was introduced to Europe from Persia, and sour – from Asia Minor. The cultivation of culture were doing in Ancient Greece. In Germany in the nineteenth century when the new year brought into the house not the tree, and cherries in the tub.
Cherry gardens – a beautiful decoration of the site.
Cherry – popular culture, the above-ground part of which consists of multiple or single trunk. On tree and shrub types of plants are not divided on this basis, and depending on the type of fruiting. First fruit fruit branches, second – year branches. Popular among gardeners felt cherry.
Flower buds of the cherry simple, after shedding the fruit of the branches become bare. The nature of the fruiting shrub cherries depends on last year's growth of branches, weak growth may be a result of improper farming practices. On short increments and group growth buds are not included, that leads to lower yields.
The main part of the harvest of cherry tree is in fruit branches, depending on the quality of care their life expectancy ranges from two to seven years. These species are less prone to exposure.
During the life of the cherry goes through three major periods: development and growth, active fruiting, drying. To extend the second, the main period, needs the right care, the optimum length of growth – from 30 to 40 cm. Root system of cherry consists of skeletal roots, located at the periphery of the crown at a depth of 20 to 40 cm. With this in mind, tillage and fertilizer.
Cherry varieties “Labska”.
Species and varieties
The most famous shrub varieties:
- “Labska”, old variety with high yield, the fruits are red;
- “Vladimir”, height – to 3,5 meters, high yield, fruit dessert, dark red;
- Turgenea – variety with late flowering periods, the fruits are large, with a sweet and sour taste, samoplodnye;
- “Griot Moscow”, cherry high, the fruits are round, high yield;
- “Zhukovskaya” – late flowering period, sweet and sour large fruit.
Cherry varieties “Novoaltayskiy”.
Early maturing and winter-hardy:
- “Asha the ordinary”;
Cherry steppe, a sort of “snowstorm”.
Varieties, do not require cross-pollination:
- “Dessert Volga”;
In the photo: cherries of the variety “chocolate”.
The grafted material
For reproduction grafting method first grown rootstock, and then he grafted cultivar. For frequently used rootstock seedlings, obtained from the kernels of cherries.
Seeds harvested from cultivars. Bone should be Mature, selected from healthy fruit. Fresh seeds immediately placed in a moist medium of sand, moss or sawdust for hardening, or stored without the substrate in plastic bags before the autumn sowing.
For the emergence of the ability to germinate seeds must undergo a period of rest, to create certain conditions. You can create them in the open ground, if you plant seeds in autumn the soil, time is from August to October.
Natural conditions can be different and not always favorable, more reliable spring sowing after stratification.
Before, how to put seeds in the ground or lay on the ripening, they are soaked for five to seven days, change the water daily.
To stratify the seeds are mixed with sawdust, well washed river sand or sphagnum moss. Bone can be damaged by mold, to rot, to avoid this, they are placed for a few seconds in a solution of potassium permanganate based 25 mg per liter of water.
Before cracking, the material is stored at a temperature of from 15 to 20 degrees for two months, then it is transferred into the basement or put in the fridge, temperature: from two to six degrees. When a third seed hatch – they pour on the ice or in the snow for hardening.
The entire period of stratification takes 150 to 180 days. The substrate must be several times to moisten and mix.
Varietal planting material can be grown from seedlings and root cuttings from healthy trees, which are high yield. Shoots are dug in September or October or in the spring before Bud break.
Planting material is taken at the peripheral part of the crown. From the trunks back down on 20 cm, the root cord is severed with a stock, with two sides, its length – to 30 cm.
If the development is weak – you can spend home rearing the offspring on the loose, fertilized the garden with regular waterings.
Root cuttings taken in early spring or late fall. The top roots bare and cut into pieces to 15 cm in length, thickness, from half an inch to one and a half centimeters. Stored material in the basement at zero temperature, substrate – wet sand.
Root cuttings are planted on prepared beds in early spring. The distance between cuttings is to 10 cm, positioning the inclined: the top end should be covered with soil one to two inches, the bottom – three to five. The beds are well watered and mulched.
This planting material can be used for rootstock.
Plot for planting dug and fertilized: from 40 to 60 g superphosphate, 20 – 30 g of potassium salt, 10 – 15 kg of humus. If the soil is acidic – 100 g lime. All calculations are given for one square meter. In the absence of mineral fertilizers, the humus can be mixed with ash. On the soil surface make grooves in three to five centimeters deep, the distance between them – to 30 cm.
Sprouted seeds are separated from the substrate, spread in the grooves using five centimeters, dropwise. Immediately spend watering and mulching.
If in his first season manages to get a thick seedlings, the next spring they were thinned. The vaccination process is most effective in the period of SAP flow: in the spring or summer.
In the spring, plant the cuttings wrasse: in the side cut and the bark. On the handle there should be two or three buds. Cuttings are cut in early winter before the frost, they are stored at zero temperature in the refrigerator, in the basement or in snow piles.
Vaccinated eye (budding) carried out in July or August. Greater assurance of survival gives budding two eyes.
The scheme of planting of cherry.
The culture grows well on elevated and well-lit areas. In Central and Northern conditions are better areas near buildings, fences. Warm and mild climate contributes to the normal development, a thick layer of snow protects from freezing. Depth to groundwater shall not be closer than half to two meters from the surface. The reaction of the soil solution is neutral or close to that.
Soil can be improved, if you dig it on the bayonet shovels along with fertilizers and lime. Norms of organic fertilizers, such as manure, composts: 10 – 15 kg per square meter. The percentage of lime depends on soil acidity, submitting it separately from mineral fertilizers. In the rich black soil make five or six pounds of organics, at 25 g of phosphorus and 10 – 15 g potassium.
Acidic peat, moist soil unsuitable for growing cherries. It is possible to try drain such a site and improve it by adding conventional, fertile soil, manure, lime, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. In the planting hole make a Mature compost, humus, potassium sulfate or ash.
For planting in a permanent place of growth requires a well-developed, healthy seedlings, with three or four branches of skeletal roots. If the material is transported, while its roots must be protected from drying out. When planting in the autumn wisp ends trimmed, the dried seedlings immersed in water for 6 – 10 hours.
Seedlings for spring planting in winter was added dropwise. To do this, dig trenches to a depth of 35 cm, direction – from West to East.
The wall on the South side of the trench doing incline, an angle 45 degrees, seedlings placed the canopy on the South.
Planting material is poured, the soil is well pressed against the trunks and roots, there should not be voids, which penetrates the cold air. Insufficiently moist soil watered.
In areas with favorable fall and winter it gives good results autumn planting. With the early onset of cold and snowy winters, the plants can freeze. Autumn planting works out 30 days before the freezing of the soil. Seedlings grow best in early spring, once thawed and dry soil.
Dimensions of the landing pit: width – 80 cm, depth – 60 cm. When digging the upper soil layer is transferred into one pile, lower the other. In the hole, put a peg, around it is poured a mound of the upper layer, mixed with mineral fertilizers and humus.
Removed the bottom layer scatter on the aisle. The root collar should be at ground level, around the plant, make the hole, fill the cushion the ground. Planting well-watered, you will need two buckets of water on a Bush. After watering the surface mulch humus, peat or soil.
A sapling tied to the stake, eight, below the barrel is formed padding.
The recommended distance between trees is two to three meters, between rows is three meters.
Pruning: tips gardeners
other similar culture, cherry is subject to all three types of cropping: anti-aging, forming, sanitary. The latter is carried out before Bud break or in the fall, remove diseased and broken branches, thin out the crown.
The formation of the right of the crown in early spring seedling rid of the side branches at the height of 60 – 80 cm. Forming four or five well-developed, skeletal branches.
In the second year, cut the center conductor and limit the growth of tree in height. In forming the Bush leave 10 – 12 the main shoot, the rest is removed.
In the next five to eight years, and during the attenuation of growth carry out rejuvenating pruning.
Figure: proper pruning cherries.
In autumn, tree trunks circles cherry dug, make humus and phosphate fertilizers. In October, the main and skeletal branches cleaned of lichen and bark Ammersee. Damage, wounds on the tree washed with a solution of iron or copper sulfate, obscure pitch. The resulting hollow slapped cement.
For wintering in autumn, the trees Spud, as soon trample down the snow in tree trunks and cut fresh cuttings for spring vaccinations.
Diseases and pests
Warned is, armed. For the prevention of diseases and pests in cherry orchard, observe the following rules:
- time to clean up fallen leaves and the remains of the mulch, if she didn't have time to humus, that, and the other is a great substrate for bacteria and fungi;
- the lower boughs and trunks should be regularly podpilivat, not only will this prevent the crust from disease, but will leave it clean from fouling by moss;
- the saw cuts treated with antiseptic drugs, paint over with pitch or oil paint;
- in winter, the trunk is isolated from rodents.
Measures to combat the kokkomikoza or perforated spots are the cherry spraying biological and chemical agents, sold in specialty stores. In the fall, after harvesting the fruits, cherries sprayed with liquid Bordeaux, and the soil was treated with copper sulfate.
Photo of different varieties of cherries
Cherry varieties “Vladimir”. The sort of “Asha the ordinary”. The Sort Of “Brunette”.
Cherry “Zhukovskaya”. The sort of “Griot Moscow”. Cherry “Generous”.
Video about growing cherries
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